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Japanese carmaker Nissan has warned that a no-deal Brexit could make its European business model unsustainable.

Nissan’s European chairman, Gianluca de Ficchy, said if a 10% export tariff was introduced after the UK left the EU it would put its operations “in jeopardy”.

This would be the case if the UK moved to World Trade Organization (WTO) rules after Brexit, he said.

He was speaking at Nissan’s plant in Sunderland, where work on a new model of the Juke is due to start.

The Japanese firm said it had invested £100m in the plant, which also makes the Qashqai and electric Leaf models.

Mr de Ficchy said Nissan still intended to build in Sunderland, the UK’s biggest car plant, but that it was difficult to plan for the future amid Brexit uncertainty.

The new Juke has been designed and manufactured in the UK, aimed specifically at European markets, with two-thirds of its components coming from the EU and 70% of production destined for the continent.

Nissan, which employs 7,000 in Sunderland, also has operations in Spain.

Mr de Ficchy said the cost of moving to WTO rules would mean the “entire business model for Nissan Europe will be in jeopardy”.

The car industry is the UK’s biggest exporter of goods and eight out of every 10 cars built in the UK are exported.

Speaking to the BBC, Mr de Ficchy said: “We do not know still what a no-deal means.

“There are many alternatives, and today there is a lot of uncertainty.

“The only message I can [give] is that if a no-deal will be associated with the application of 10% duties under the WTO rules, that will create an enormous problem for the overall European activities of Nissan Europe.

“If we will have to sustain 10% export duties on the vehicles that we export from UK to EU, knowing that those vehicles represent 70% of total production, the overall business model won’t be sustainable.

“It’s not a question of Sunderland, it’s a question of the overall economic sustainability of our business [in Europe].”

He said the business was asking for tariffs not be imposed if there is a no-deal Brexit.

“We are asking not to have tariffs being applied in a no-deal scenario because otherwise the tariffs won’t be sustainable for us,” he said.

A spokesperson for the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy said: “We continue to work closely with the sector as they get ready for Brexit on 31 October.”

On Wednesday, union leaders revealed night shifts at Sunderland would end – but Mr Ficchy said this was not the result of Brexit.

Other carmakers have warned about the impact of Brexit on their business, not just because of the cost of tariffs but the potential slowdown in production caused by new customs checks after the UK leaves the EU.

The industry operates a “just-in-time” model, shifting parts around the EU to construct cars in plants across the 28-nation bloc.

Last month, Carlos Tavares, chief executive of PSAthe car group that owns Vauxhall – compared a no-deal Brexit to a head-on train crash.

He has warned previously that Vauxhall plants at Ellesmere Port and Luton were under threat from Brexit.

In June, PSA Group announced plans to build a new version of the Vauxhall Astra at its Ellesmere Port factory in Cheshire.

The industry is also under pressure with fewer diesel cars being bought and emissions standards presenting challenges for carmakers.

In February, Honda announced the closure of its Swindon plant but said it was nothing to do Brexit.

The US has placed economic sanctions on members of Gupta family and a business associate for their alleged roles in a “significant corruption network” in South Africa.

The three Gupta brothers, friends of former South African president Jacob Zuma, are accused of bribing politicians to advance their business.

The Guptas have denied wrongdoing.

The order forbids US entities from doing business with the men or handling their assets.

The US said the Guptas engaged in “pay-to-play political patronage, which was orchestrated at the expense of the South African people”.

“The Guptas and [Salim] Essa have used their influence with prominent politicians and parties to line their pockets with ill-gotten gains,” US Treasury official Sigal Mandelker said. “We will continue to exclude from the U.S. financial system those who profit from corruption.”

The order applies to Ajay, Atul, and Rajesh Gupta as well as Salim Essa.

US officials said it is intended to support South Africa’s ongoing inquiry into the alleged corruption. It further isolates the Guptas, who had already been blacklisted at several South African banks.

How did this start?

The Gupta brothers arrived in South Africa from India in the 1990s and established computer business Sahara, later buying up stakes in mining and engineering companies, a luxury game lodge, a newspaper and a 24-hour news TV station.

They are accused of bribing officials to advance their business interests and win government contracts. They also employed members of Mr Zuma’s family.

Those ties had long shielded the family, but in 2018, with Mr Zuma’s grip on power slipping, South African police raided the family’s Johannesburg compound. Mr Zuma resigned shortly after.

The Guptas had already left the country, reportedly for the United Arab Emirates. At the time, many of their businesses were also in the process of closing down, changing hands or being targeted for seizure by authorities.

The scandal tarnished several global companies that had worked in the country, including financial consultants McKinsey, accounting giant KPMG and software firm SAP.

British public relations giant Bell Pottinger was driven into administration.

The owner of the Wrightbus factory has said he has not been able to reach a deal to sell it to a new owner.

Jeff Wright said that the sticking point had been farmland he does not consider part of the factory site.

In a statement released on Thursday, bidder Jo Bamford said he had met the asking price for the Wrightbus factory and the land.

“Mr Wright has since refused this offer and has now asked for a significantly higher sum of money,” added Mr Bamford.

The English industrialist wants to buy the Wrightbus business and the factory through his Ryse Hydrogen company.

He said the sum offered matched “the amount that the factory and associated land was purchased for two years ago from JTI”.

Earlier on Thursday, former Wrightbus director Jeff Wright said the failure to complete a deal was “deeply regrettable, especially after the exhaustive efforts all of us involved have gone to in providing every possible support”.

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The Ballymena business was placed into administration and put up for sale last month.

The Wrightbus premises are owned separately from the manufacturing business and held in a company called Whirlwind Property Two, which is not part of the Wright group and is therefore not under the control of the administrator.

The property company is controlled by Mr Wright, the former owner of Wrightbus.

Mr Wright said he hoped the firm’s administrator Deloitte had “not been sidetracked by the Bamford engagement” and could work with the remaining bidders.

Mr Wright also criticised the role played by the DUP MP for North Antrim, Ian Paisley.

Speaking on BBC Radio Ulster on Thursday morning, Mr Paisley said: “Today is decision day.”

“If the answer is that we cannot get the deal consummated, in terms of the land sale deal, then I’m afraid the worst of all situations prevails and we’re left with liquidation of assets of the company,” he said.

“It’s either the continuation of building the best buses produced in the world or it’s the end of bus building in Ballymena.”

But Jeff Wright said Mr Paisley’s role had been “unhelpful to say the least” and he advised that the MP to “leave the business of deal making to the professionals at Deloitte”.

“In what could be considered a vote-campaigning exercise, Mr Paisley continually championed Mr Bamford throughout this process,” added Jeff Wright.

The union representing workers at the County Antrim bus manufacturing firm said a deal was still possible.

“It is not dead in the water – it’s hanging by a thread,” said Unite official George Brash.

Mr Brash said he understood an outline deal was reached on Wednesday but changes were made by Mr Wright on Thursday morning, which “threw the entire negotiations into uncertainty”.

He added: “Unite has sought to engage directly with Jeff Wright, but as yet our request for a meeting has gone unanswered.

“We are calling on all sides, in particular Jeff Wright, to do the right thing and adopt a sensible approach that will open the door to a future for these workers.”

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The new design of Britain’s most common, and most forged, banknote has been unveiled by the Bank of England.

Security features on the next £20 note, featuring artist JMW Turner, will include two see-through windows on the note and a metallic hologram.

In the first half this year, 88% of detected banknote forgeries were £20 notes, the Bank’s statistics show.

The new design, which the Bank describes as its most secure, enters circulation on 20 February next year.

Why is the £20 note important?

The most commonly circulating banknote in Britain is the £20 note, with two billion of them in the system.

That is double the number of £10 notes in circulation, and far greater than the number of £5 notes (396 million) and £50 notes (344 million).

The popularity of the note is part of the reason for it also being the most likely to be forged.

The Bank discovered 228,000 counterfeit banknotes in the first half of the year, of which 201,000 were £20 notes.

It has easily been the most commonly forged Bank of England banknote in each of the past 10 years.

The new £20 note will be the first to feature the signature of Sarah John, the Bank’s chief cashier, who said: “The new £20 is an important part of our commitment to providing banknotes that people can use with confidence.

“Our polymer notes are much harder to counterfeit and, with the £20 being our most common note, this marks a big step forward in our fight against counterfeiting.”

What will the new banknote look like?

The banknote will feature Turner’s self-portrait, from 1799, currently on display in the Tate Britain, and one of his most eminent paintings – The Fighting Temeraire – which can be seen in the National Gallery.

In 2005, the painting – a tribute to the HMS Temeraire in Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 – was voted Britain’s greatest painting in a poll organised by the BBC.

The quote on the banknote – “Light is therefore colour” – comes from an 1818 lecture by Turner at the Royal Academy, where he first exhibited at the age of 15. His signature is from his will in which he bequeathed his work to the nation.

Others features include:

  • A large see-through window, based on the shape of the fountains in London’s Trafalgar Square, with a blue and gold foil on the front depicting Margate lighthouse and the Turner Contemporary gallery in the town
  • A smaller see-through window in the bottom corner of the note inspired by Tintern Abbey
  • A metallic hologram which changes between the words “Twenty” and “Pounds” when tilted
  • The Queen’s portrait in the see-through window with “£20 Bank of England” printed twice around the edge
  • A silver foil patch with the 3D image of the coronation crown
  • A purple foil patch containing the letter T, based on the staircase at the Tate Britain gallery

Bank of England governor Mark Carney said: “As the new Turner £20 testifies, money can be a work of art in everyone’s pocket.”

The note is replacing the current £20 note featuring the economist Adam Smith. Of the five characters on banknotes by the end of 2021, other than the Queen only Jane Austen – who has appeared on the £10 note since 2017 – is a woman.

What is the note made of?

The new £20 note will be the third Bank of England banknote to be made from polymer, following the new £5 note and new £10 note. The next version of the £50 note, to be launched by the end of 2021, will also be polymer.

The theory is that the plastic notes will be more sturdy, such as surviving a spin in the washing machine, and be more resistant to counterfeiting.

Banks in Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man have issued plastic banknotes in the past.

How was Turner chosen as the face of the note?

The Bank received 29,701 nominations from the public after it announced it wanted to celebrate an artist on the note. Some 590 eligible visual artists were considered for the honour – about a fifth of whom are women.

The list was considered by a Bank committee, which included independent experts. It drew up a shortlist of five – Turner, filmmaker Charlie Chaplin, sculptor Barbara Hepworth, painter William Hogarth, and designer Josiah Wedgwood – from which the Bank’s governor, Mr Carney, made the final choice of the English Romantic artist Joseph Mallord William Turner, or JMW Turner (1775 – 1851).

He is known as “the painter of light” and described by artist Tracey Emin as a “wild maverick”. The unveiling was held at the Turner Contemporary in Margate, Kent. It was in the town that the London-born Turner, the son of a barber and wig maker, lived and more than 100 of his works were inspired by the East Kent coast.

Who are on other banknotes?

Sir Winston Churchill appears on the Bank of England’s polymer £5 note.

Jane Austen was chosen to appear on the plastic £10 note after a campaign to represent women other than the Queen on English notes.

Computer pioneer and codebreaker Alan Turing will feature on the new design of the Bank of England’s £50 note, to enter circulation by the end of 2021.

A host of different people have appeared on banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Ulster Bank’s vertical £5 and £10 notes entered circulation in Northern Ireland in February.

The UK’s economy is expected to avoid a recession after showing better-than-expected growth in the three months to the end of August.

The Office for National Statistics said the economy would now have to shrink sharply in September for the third quarter to show an overall contraction.

In three months, the economy grew by 0.3% as weak manufacturing was offset by buoyant TV and film production.

Even so, the economy unexpectedly shrank in the month of August by 0.1%.

Why the talk about a recession?

The growth figures are being watched closely for signs of recession – defined as two consecutive quarters of contraction – after the economy shrank in the second quarter for the first time since 2012.

The next quarter runs until the end of September so the August data is the second month in the third quarter.

Although the economy contracted in August, the ONS revised up its forecast for growth in July from 0.3% to 0.4%.

Andrew Wishart, UK economist at Capital Economics, said that this revision meant “fears that the economy is already in recession have been banished”.

The ONS said the economy would now have to contract by 1.5% in September alone for the UK to slide in to recession.

What happened in the latest three months?

The ONS uses the monthly data to compile a rolling three-month picture of GDP.

It said that in the first half of 2019 the data had been volatile because of preparations for the original Brexit date in March, which had sparked some stockpiling.

Rob Kent-Smith, head of GDP at the ONS, said: “Growth increased in the latest three months, despite a weak performance across manufacturing, with TV and film production helping to boost the services sector.

“Services provided [the] majority of the growth over the three months, with production and manufacturing falling back,” he said.

Over the three months the services sector – which makes up roughly 80% of GDP – grew by 0.4%, following a period of largely flat growth in the previous three months.

The ONS said the production sector fell by 0.4% in the same period, while construction output grew by 0.1%.

So why did the economy shrink in August?

For August, economists had been expecting zero growth.

But the ONS data showed it contracted, dragged lower by a drop in manufacturing when car production was subdued.

Only the construction sector expanded during the month, said Chris Williamson, chief business economist at IHS Markit.

Manufacturing contracted by 0.7% while the all-important services sector failed to grow.

He described the August data as “disappointing”.

Did The Crown save the UK from recession?

TV and film production – such as filming of The Crown – enabled GDP to grow by 0.3% in the three months to August, more than compensating for activity languishing across the board in that month alone.

But that is not sufficient reason to cheer.

As the Bank of England has highlighted, growth has lost momentum over the past year and the economy is limping rather than flying.

Part of this is undoubtedly Brexit related – with business investment suffering amidst the prolonged uncertainty. A failure of firms to spend on factories and machines will have long-reaching implications. This is one reason why economists are pulling down their forecasts for next year too.

But it is also unhelpful that growth in some of our biggest trading partners, such as Germany, has run into problems. The bright spot remains job creation – but that too could falter.

This sluggishness ignited a mood shift among policymakers. Even those members of the Bank’s interest rate panel who previously favoured a rise in the cost of borrowing now think their next move could be a cut – deal or no deal.

The question for them, grappling with as much uncertainty as the rest of us, is when.

What does it mean for the future?

The data sparked some economists to revise up their expectations for the third quarter.

Mr Wishart said the the economy could grow by 0.4% in the third quarter, more than he had originally expected.

However, John Hawksworth, chief economist at PwC, said that while the data “has put to bed fears of the UK economy falling into recession in the third quarter of 2019”, he was cautious about the future.

He said there could be “problems ahead in the fourth quarter as heightened Brexit-related uncertainty takes a toll on both business investment and consumer confidence.”

Uncertainty about Brexit was also mentioned by Mr Williamson. who expects the UK to expand by 1% in 2019 but by just 0.5% in 2020.

“These growth projections assume a Brexit delay beyond 31st October and that the UK and EU will eventually achieve a comprehensive agreement on future relations. However, a no-deal Brexit would likely throw the UK into a prolonged recession,” he said.

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A tool Google offered in the US to help cities measure pollution and emissions levels is now available in Europe.

It compiles transport and building data from Google Maps with publicly available information about emissions

Google will initially offer the tool to Birmingham, Manchester, Wolverhampton and Coventry, Dublin and Copenhagen.

It plans to add more cities on other continents in coming weeks and any city can to nominate itself via an online form.

The Environmental Insights Explorer (EIE) offers data in four categories:

  • building emissions
  • transport emissions
  • general emissions
  • solar potential

The dashboard is designed to help cities see what changes they could make to lower emissions, such as creating more bike lanes or installing solar panels on buildings.

In a separate project, Air View, Google Street View cars have been measuring air pollution as they drive through cities, including London and Copenhagen.

And this data will also be shared via the EIE tool.

An official of the city of Copenhagen said: “With this new data, the city of Copenhagen can see for the first time pollutant levels of air quality at the ultrafine particle level on the roads in the city centre, as well as leading into the city centre, that are contributing the most to the city’s air pollution problems.”

West Midlands Mayor Andy Street said: “We have already declared a climate emergency in the West Midlands and are now working up our plans as to how we become carbon neutral no later than 2040.

“This data being made available across our three cities by Google will make a substantial difference to our efforts and will help us target specific areas to achieve greater results.”

Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy executive director Amanda Eichel said: “We believe EIE can serve as a critical first step for city sustainability teams to better assess their current situation and more efficiently track and monitor their progress in meeting their climate protection goals.”

Partnerships between cities and technology companies have not always gone well, though.

Google sister company Sidewalk Labs wants to build a “smart” neighbourhood in Toronto but has faced strong opposition from residents, with a recent report suggesting a lot of its suggestions for innovations were “tech for tech’s sake”.

People in Liverpool have longer mobile phone calls than the residents of nine other major British cities, an Ofcom survey has suggested.

Liverpudlians spend six minutes and 51 seconds on a single call, on average.

That’s more than 40% longer than Londoners, who came second in the survey results.

People in Bradford had the shortest conversations on average, at three minutes and 15 seconds.

Data for the survey was gathered from 150,000 mobile phone users between 1 January and 31 March this year.

The survey did not consider calls made via Skype or WhatsApp and similar apps.

The research also found that people who used their phones for online services mostly stuck to wi-fi. Mobile data services such as 3G and 4G were used for less than a third of such activity.

It’s partly thanks to this that 60% of users consume one gigabyte of data every month, the regulator said.

Analysis by the Citizens Advice earlier this year found that 71% of SIM-only customers were paying for data they did not use – costing £800 million annually.

Mobile conversations

Liverpudlians like to chat

Data shows that the total number of minutes spent on mobile calls increased from 132.1 billion to 148.6 billion between 2012 and 2017.

However, last year data collected by Ofcom showed that the amount of time spent making calls from mobile phones had fallen for the first time.

Young people often prefer messaging services over voice calls, the regulator has noted, and services such as WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger are becoming increasingly popular alternatives to voice calls.

Having a good signal has “never been more important” said Ian Macrae, director of market intelligence at Ofcom.

The regulator said that while 92% of people get basic mobile phone reception in their homes from all four networks, some still “struggle” to get a good signal.

Consumer group Which? argued that “too many” people faced poor reception.

“Until the government publishes plans for how it will achieve its current commitment, the UK will continue to lag behind and lack the comprehensive mobile and broadband connectivity it desperately needs,” said Caroline Normand, director of advocacy.

The UK government has committed to increasing mobile coverage to 95% of the UK by the end of 2022.

Hull has become the first city in the UK where everyone can get full fibre broadband.

This achievement has come after a seven year investment programme – and the fact that this city has led the way in developing this vital technology tells us an interesting story about the UK’s broadband strategy.

Full fibre, where a fibre optic cable comes right into your home rather than to a streetside cabinet, is the gold standard of broadband, available to only 8% of UK premises.

We lag far behind many of our European neighbours, a fact which has dismayed the Prime Minister.

Boris Johnson has promised that everyone in the UK will have access to this ultrafast service by 2025.

That is a pledge that has left the internet industry and BT in particular with a mountain to climb – quite literally in some parts of the country.

It was not BT which laid fibre down every street to reach 200,000 homes in Hull and East Yorkshire but the local telecoms firm Kcom.

Once owned by the city council and known as Kingston Communications, this business was briefly part of the dot com bubble.

Back in 1999 the company, known back then for its distinctive white phone boxes, floated on the stock exchange.

For a while, its shares soared and it entered the FTSE 100, leaving many local residents sitting on big paper profits.

When the bubble burst, the shares collapsed and a challenging decade followed.

Fibre provider

But in 2012 the company now known as Kcom decided on an ambitious plan.

Back then, BT had started to roll out fibre to the cabinet (FTTC), where the final connection to homes came down a copper cable.

“We decided that was just not future proof, copper wasn’t suitable for the fast data rates of the future,” explains Sean Royce, now Kcom’s managing director.

FTTC was a cheaper option – one cabinet could serve a thousand residents – but Kcom decided to gamble on laying fibre to every home.

For a while, the £85m investment programme looked like a gamble that had failed.

Because it took much longer to roll out this kind of network, Hull kept coming at or near the bottom of the league for broadband speeds, and many residents complained..

Now though, it has soared to the top of the league. “We said ‘Give us time,” says Sean Royce. “And now here we are with the fastest network in the UK.”

Indeed, he says proudly, with average speeds of 94.7Mbps, Hull would be the fastest country in the world if it was a republic.

He says the benefits of full fibre are already being felt, with £469m of incremental economic activity in the area that would not have happened without it.

Superfast target

So did BT go down the wrong path? Well, given that Kcom has spent £85m to reach 0.5% of UK premises, the figure for a nationwide rollout would be at least £17bn.

BT will argue that if it had proposed that scale of investment plan back in 2012 its shareholders would have given it a dusty answer.

Then there is the question of government incentives.

In the early years of the Cameron administration, then culture secretary Jeremy Hunt set a target of getting the “best superfast broadband” in Europe to 90% of homes by 2015.

With superfast defined as above 24Mbps, it was obvious to BT that there were much cheaper and faster ways of achieving this goal than investing in full fibre.

Successive governments and regulators have wanted three things from the broadband industry – the fastest speeds, delivered to the most people, in a competitive market where prices are kept low.

Kcom’s success as a monopoly player in Hull seems to suggest that you cannot have both world-leading speeds and fierce competition.

Now the industry is being set what many players think is a ludicrously ambitious new target.

BT boasted yesterday that it is hooking up one new customer to full fibre every 30 seconds – but Andrew Ferguson of thinkbroadband.com reckons hitting the PM’s target will mean a new connection being completed every 8 seconds.

BT and other industry players are telling the government that they will need less regulation, lower taxes, and probably a looser competition framework if they are to give everyone the full fibre nirvana available to the residents of Hull.

Workers on farms and plantations that supply big UK supermarkets are being subjected to poverty and human rights abuses, according to Oxfam.

A “relentless” drive for retailer profits is fuelling poverty, abuse, and discrimination, the charity said.

Poor conditions were rife on farms that supply supermarkets including Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons, it added.

But the British Retail Consortium said retailers were “spearheading actions” intended to improve millions of lives.

Oxfam conducted research in India and Brazil, and surveyed workers in five other countries.

Workers on 50 tea plantations in Assam told Oxfam that cholera and typhoid are “prevalent because workers lack access to toilets and safe drinking water”.

Half the workers questioned got ration cards from the government due to low wages, while female employees regularly worked for up to 13 “back-breaking” hours a day, it said.

Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Morrisons and Aldi all source tea from those suppliers, while Asda-owner Walmart would neither confirm nor deny whether it did, the charity said.

Oxfam found that, of the 79p paid by shoppers for a 100g pack of black Assam tea in the UK, supermarkets and tea brands receive 49p while workers collectively received 3p.

The charity said workers on the Assam estates could earn a living wage if they were paid 5p more of the retail price.

Pesticide price

Workers on fruit farms in Brazil told Oxfam they had developed skin conditions from using pesticides without adequate protection.

Women on those grape, melon and mango farms also said they had to rely on government handouts outside of harvest season.

Those farms supply supermarkets including Lidl and Sainsbury’s, and previously Tesco and Morrisons, the charity said.

Walmart again neither confirmed nor denied links.

Rachel Wilshaw, Oxfam ethical trade manager, said: “Despite some pockets of good practice, supermarkets’ relentless pursuit of profits continues to fuel poverty and human rights abuses in their supply chains.

“Supermarkets must do more to end exploitation, pay all their workers a living wage, ensure women get a fair deal and be more transparent about where they source their products.”

A separate Oxfam survey of more than 500 workers in the Philippines, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Peru and the US found three quarters of workers saying they were not paid enough to cover basic needs such as food and housing.

More than a third said they were not protected from injury or harm at work and were not able to take a toilet break or have a drink of water when they needed it.

An Oxfam spokesperson said abuses in supermarket supply chains were “endemic”.

Supermarket action

However, Peter Andrews, head of sustainability at the British Retail Consortium (BRC), said: “Supermarkets in the UK are spearheading actions aimed at improving the lives of the millions of people across the globe who contribute to the retail supply chain.

“Our members are working hard to address existing injustices and continue to collaborate internationally with NGOs [non-governmental organisations], business groups and government on this vital issue.”

Meanwhile, Oxfam ranked supermarket giants on their sourcing policies, with all showing an improvement compared with last year.

Tesco, which was at the top of the pile, was given a score of 38%.

A Tesco spokesperson said: “This is the second year in a row that Tesco has been assessed by Oxfam as doing most, of all major supermarkets globally, to ensure human rights are respected in food supply chains.”

It said its tea was Rainforest Alliance certified and that it was “committed to improving the lives of tea workers and ensuring minimum working conditions.”

It added: “We know there is always more to do and we are working collaboratively with NGOs, trade unions and others to improve wages in the key produce, tea and clothing sectors and ensure working conditions are fair.”

An Aldi spokesperson said: “We continue to work hard to ensure every person working in our supply chain is treated fairly and has their human rights respected.

“We share the values behind Oxfam’s campaign and are in regular dialogue with them.”